Still Waters: Ein Avdat in Nahal Zin

July 6, 2020

Nahal Zin was the southern border of Judah when the land was distributed to the twelve tribes of Israel, during the days of the Conquest under Joshua (Num. 34:3-4; Josh. 15:1-3). This wadi is 75 miles in length, cutting through many layers of mostly limestone. The Negev can be a dry and thirsty land, but there are also refreshing springs and pools of water.

When David wrote, “He maketh me to lie down in green pastures: he leadeth me beside the still waters,” he may have had such scenes as this in mind. The spring, Ein Avdat, emerges at the base of the waterfall in the distant center.

Ein Avdat in Nahal Zin. Photo ©Leon Mauldin.

When Ferrell Jenkins and I visited here in March 2018 there were serveral ibexes in the area.

Ibex in Nahal Zin near Ein Avdat. Photo ©Leon Mauldin.

Click on photos for larger view.

 


The Empty Tomb

April 9, 2020

On Sunday, the 1st day of the week when Jesus was raised from the dead, the text says this about Peter and “the other disciple:”

So they both ran together, and the other disciple outran Peter and came to the tomb first. And he, stooping down and looking in, saw the linen cloths lying there; yet he did not go in. Then Simon Peter came, following him, and went into the tomb; and he saw the linen cloths lying there, and the handkerchief that had been around His head, not lying with the linen cloths, but folded together in a place by itself. Then the other disciple, who came to the tomb first, went in also; and he saw and believed. (John 20:4-8).

Note the record says the disciple stooped down to look in.  The tomb in our photo shows how this would of necessity be true.

Rolling stone Tomb. Stooping to look inside. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

This is the not tomb in which Jesus was buried; this tomb in our photo is located between Mt. Carmel and Megiddo in Israel, and dates back to the 1st century. It does however illustrate the type of tomb that would have been used. The Bible says that Joseph of Arimathea had a new tomb (one which had not been previously used, John 19:38-42).  Assisted by Nicodemus, Joseph wrapped Jesus’ body in a clean linen cloth, “and laid it in his new tomb which he had hewn out of the rock; and he rolled a large stone against the door of the tomb, and departed” (Mt. 27:59-60). The tomb in our photo was hewn out of the rock, and you can see the large stone positioned to the left of the opening.

For New Testament Christians, each first day of the week is significant.  Christians assemble in the name of Jesus Christ to partake of His memorial feast, the Lord’s Supper.  That Supper points back to His death, His body and His blood.  But we serve a risen Savior!  We proclaim His death till He comes (1 Cor. 11:26).


Baal Worship, a Perpetual Problem in Ancient Israel

February 7, 2020

A primary distinction between Israel and all the other nations was embodied in the first two commandments: “Thou shalt have no other gods before me.” “Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image” (Ex. 20:3,4). Idolatry in its varied forms, with many gods, permeated the ancient world. Even though a nation or region might have its own “special” deity, the belief that there were many other gods was universal. The premise that there is but one true God, and all others are false, surely made Israel unique as a nation.

But unfortunately, the nation of Israel often looked to the nations round about them, and were thereby influenced in many ways instead of holding fast to their relationship with YHWH.

The god Baal. Hecht Museum. Photo ©Leon Mauldin.

In the biblical period of the Judges we read, “and they forsook the LORD God of their fathers, who had brought them out of the land of Egypt; and they followed other gods from among the gods of the people who were all around them, and they bowed down to them; and they provoked the LORD to anger. They forsook the LORD and served Baal and the Ashtoreths” (Judges 2:12-13). Our photo of Baal seen here was taken at the Hecht Museum at the University of Haifa, Israel (as well as the other photos included in this post).

You will notice that our biblical text also includes the “Ashtoreths” which would essentially be the female counterpart to Baal. The New Revised Standard renders, “They abandoned the LORD, and worshiped Baal and the Astartes.” This deity, Astarte, was also displayed at the Hecht Museum.

Astarte, Phoenician Fertility Goddess. Hecht Museum. Photo ©Leon Mauldin.

The Baal worship that was seen in the period of Judges repeated itself throughout the period known as the Divided Kingdom. In the chapter that tells of the fall of the northern kingdom of Israel, the Bible says, “They abandoned all the commandments of the LORD their God. They made for themselves molded images– even two calves– and an Asherah pole. They worshiped the whole heavenly host and served Baal” (2 Kings 17:16, CSB).

H. F. Vos has the following basic information about Baal:

Name of the most prominent Canaanite deity. As the god of fertility in the Canaanite pantheon (roster of gods), Baal’s sphere of influence included agriculture, animal husbandry, and human sexuality. The word Baal occurs in the OT in combination with other terms, such as place-names (Baal-peor, Hos 9:10; Baal-hermon, Jgs 3:3), or with other adjuncts as in Baal-berith (Baal of the covenant, Jgs 8:33). Use of the name in connection with a local place-name may indicate a local cult of Baal worship.

Baal worship became prominent in the northern Kingdom of Israel during the days of King Ahab (9th century BC) when he married Jezebel of Tyre, a city in Phoenicia (1 Kgs 16:29–33; 18:19–40). It later infiltrated the Kingdom of Judah when Athaliah, daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, married King Jehoram of Judah (2 Kgs 8:17, 18, 24–26). Places for worship of Baal were often high places in the hills consisting of an altar and a sacred tree, stone, or pillar (2 Kgs 23:5). The predominantly urban Phoenicians built temples to Baal; while Athaliah was queen of Judah, even Jerusalem had one (2 Chr 23:12–17) . . .

the Canaanites engaged in orgiastic worship that included human sacrifice as well as sexual rites (Jer 7:31; 19:4–6). Sacred prostitutes evidently participated in the autumnal religious ritual.  Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible (Vol. 1, p. 239).

I mentioned the fall of northern kingdom of Israel above in our 2 Kings text. Jeremiah was a prophet in the days of the next biblical period, Judah Alone. From his writings we see that unfortunately, many in Judah did not learn from the example of God’s displeasure of Israel’s worship of Baal. This false system was also perpetuated in Judah, even including the sacrifice of their children (as noted above by Vos): “They have built places here for worship of the god Baal so that they could sacrifice their children as burnt offerings to him in the fire. Such sacrifices are something I never commanded them to make! They are something I never told them to do! Indeed, such a thing never even entered my mind!” (Jer. 19:5, NET).

Not only were there the larger images that would be housed in temples or otherwise displayed for public worship, but smaller, “household” gods and goddesses were common.

Astarte, Household Fertility Goddess, 8th century BC. Hecht Museum. Photo ©Leon Mauldin.

We have previously posted on Baal worship here and here.

We close with the words of Jesus, “You shall worship the LORD your God, and Him only you shall serve” (Mt. 4:10).

(Click images for larger view).


Hadad, Name of a god and Syrian Kings

January 24, 2020

In the study of the Divided Kingdom there are many references to “Ben-hadad”, king of Syria. For example, I was just reading 2 Kings 6:24: “Afterward Ben-hadad king of Syria mustered his entire army and went up and besieged Samaria.”

Biblical references to Ben-hadad. ESV Bible, slide by Leon Mauldin.

The name “Ben-hadad” means “son of Hadad.” This is in reference to the god Hadad, god of Syria. In this mythology, he was the storm god, the god that provided rain.

There is a bust of Hadad housed in the Jordan Museum in Amman.

The god Hadad. Jordan Museum. Photo ©Leon Mauldin.

“Ben-hadad” is a dynastic name. There are three kings in the Bible record (in the numerous passages above) called “Ben-hadad.” A. H. Sayce wrote:

BEN-HADAD (בֶּן־הֲדַד, υἱὸς Ἁδερ, Benadad).—Three kings of Damascus of this name are mentioned in the OT.

Ben-hadad I., the son of Tab-rimmon, the son of Hezion (? Rezon), was bribed by Asa of Judah, with the treasures of the temple and palace, to attack Baasha of Israel while the latter was building the fortress of Ramah, and thereby blocking the Jewish high-road to the north. Asa urged that there had been alliance between his father and Tab-rimmon; but his gold was doubtless more efficacious in inducing Ben-hadad to invade the northern part of Israel, and so oblige Baasha to desert Ramah. Thereupon Asa carried away the stone and timber of Ramah, and built with them Geba and Mizpah (1 K 15:18–22).

Ben-hadad II. was the son and successor of Ben-hadad I. We have an account of his war with Ahab, and unsuccessful siege of Samaria, in 1 K 20. Thirty-two kings are said to have been his vassals or allies. He was, however, signally defeated at Aphek, and compelled to restore the cities taken by his father (1 K 20:34), as well as to grant the Israelites a bazaar in Damascus. At a later period Ben-hadad again besieged Samaria; but a panic fell upon his army, and they fled, believing that the king of Israel had hired against them ‘the kings of the Hittites and the kings of the Egyptians’ (2 K 7:6, 7). Having fallen ill, Ben-hadad afterwards sent Hazael to the prophet Elisha, who had come to Damascus, to ask whether he should recover; but the result of the mission was, that on the following day Hazael smothered his master and seized the crown (2 K 8:7–15).

Ben-hadad III. was the son of Hazael, and lost the Israelitish conquests that his father had made. Thrice did Joash of Israel ‘smite him, and recovered the cities of Israel’ (2 K 13:25). Sayce, A. H. A Dictionary of the Bible: Dealing with Its Language, Literature, and Contents Including the Biblical Theology (Vol. 1, p. 271).

The Lexham Bible Dictionary gives the following helpful information on the god Hadad regarding the significance of the land of Syria:

Although Hadad was worshiped in Mesopotamia, Hadad likely originated in Syria. In a late Assyrian deity-list, Hadad (dAd-du) is called dIM.MARki, the “storm-god of the west” (Huffmon, Amorite Personal Names, 156; Conn. 25, 16:16). In Syria, Hadad was probably an important deity from earliest times. Here Hadad was the son of Dagon, the Mesopotamian and West Semitic storm deity, and the equivalent of the great Sumerian storm-god Enlil (Green, Storm-God, 63–72, 167–68). Tablets discovered at ancient Mari associate the storm-god dIM with Hadad, who was revered in Syria more as a warrior than as a beneficent bringer of fertility. In the second millennium BC Hadad’s cult was centralized in ancient Yamhad (modern Aleppo), in Syria (Abou-Assaf, “Die Ikonographie”). Kelley, J. L. (2016). The Lexham Bible Dictionary.

I hope this information will be helpful to any who are undertaking a study of that complex biblical period known as the Divided Kingdom. Click images for larger view.


Rock Badgers/Hyraxes at En-Gedi, Israel

November 27, 2019

Proverbs 30:26 states, “hyraxes are not a mighty people, yet they make their homes in the cliffs” (CSB). The NASB retains the Hebrew term, “The shephanim are not mighty people, Yet they make their houses in the rocks.” ESV renders, “the rock badgers.” KJV has “conies.”

It is not unusual to see these animals in En-Gedi.

Rock badgers at En-gedi. Photo ©Leon Mauldin.

Ferrell Jenkins and I photographed these as we were walking up the trail to see the falls at En-gedi, while doing a personal study trip in Israel in 2009.

Rock badger at En-gedi. Photo ©Leon Mauldin.

The NET Bible has this note:

This is the Syrian Hyrax, also known as the rock badger. KJV, ASV has “conies” (alternately spelled “coneys” by NIV), a term usually associated with the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) but which can also refer to the pika or the hyrax. Scholars today generally agree that the Hebrew term used here refers to a type of hyrax, a small ungulate mammal of the family Procaviidae native to Africa and the Middle East which has a thick body, short legs and ears and a rudimentary tail. The simple “badger” (so NASB, NRSV, CEV) could lead to confusion with the badger, an entirely unrelated species of burrowing mammal related to weasels.

Further, “Modern scholars identify this creature with the rock badger (the Syrian hyrax), a small mammal that lives in the crevices of the rock. Its wisdom consists in its ingenuity to find a place of security” (NET Bible note).

En-gedi is known for its beautiful falls.

Waterfalls at En-gedi. Photo ©Leon Mauldin.

En-gedi was an area where David and his men fled from King Saul.

Waterfall at En-gedi. Photo ©Leon Mauldin.

I previously posted on the rock badger on our blog here.

In our home congregation we are completing a study of the Proverbs, with ch. 30 scheduled for Sunday. I find that visuals such as these can be very helpful in our understanding of the biblical text.

Click on images for larger view.


Shepherds’ Field in Bethlehem

September 13, 2019

Luke 2 narrates the night of the Savior’s birth, when the good news was first announced to Bethlehem-area shepherds:

Now there were in the same country shepherds living out in the fields, keeping watch over their flock by night. 9 And behold, an angel of the Lord stood before them, and the glory of the Lord shone around them, and they were greatly afraid. 10 Then the angel said to them, “Do not be afraid, for behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy which will be to all people. 11 “For there is born to you this day in the city of David a Savior, who is Christ the Lord. 12 “And this will be the sign to you: You will find a Babe wrapped in swaddling cloths, lying in a manger.” 13 And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God and saying: 14 “Glory to God in the highest, And on earth peace, goodwill toward men!” 15 So it was, when the angels had gone away from them into heaven, that the shepherds said to one another, “Let us now go to Bethlehem and see this thing that has come to pass, which the Lord has made known to us.” 16 And they came with haste and found Mary and Joseph, and the Babe lying in a manger. 17 Now when they had seen Him, they made widely known the saying which was told them concerning this Child. 18 And all those who heard it marveled at those things which were told them by the shepherds. (Luke 2:8-18, NKJV).

Sign indicating location of Shepherd’s Field east side of Bethlehem. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

When one visits Bethlehem there is the opportunity to see the area designated as “Shepherd’s Field,” the Franciscan site located  on the east side of Bethlehem. This helps us to visualize where the shepherds would have been that night when the angel informed them of Jesus’ birth in our text above.

Shepherds’ Fields, Bethlehem. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

On most other occasions when I’ve been here the fields were brown and dry. This past March 2019 they were green.

Our group gathered in a nearby cave.

Cave at Shepherds’ Field. Mauldin Group, 2019. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

Here we discussed the occasion of Jesus’ birth, and also took advantage of the natural acoustics to sing. Visiting Bethlehem gave us the opportunity to contemplate the wonderful plan of God, that Eternal Deity, the Eternal Word, became man! “And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth” (John 1:14).

I’ve previously posted on Bethlehem: click here, here and here. Ferrell Jenkins provides a listing of articles he has written on Bethlehem. Click here 

Click on images for larger view.


He Is Risen

April 20, 2019

As one descends Mt. Carmel going toward Megiddo, there is a rolling stone tomb whose usage dates back to the first century.

Rolling Stone Tomb Near Carmel. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

This tomb was discovered during road construction.  It so well illustrates the biblical texts that narrate the burial of Jesus.  Joseph of Arimathea had a new tomb (one which had not been previously used, John 19:38-42).  Assisted by Nicodemus, Joseph wrapped Jesus’ body in a clean linen cloth, “and laid it in his new tomb which he had hewn out of the rock; and he rolled a large stone against the door of the tomb, and departed” (Mt. 27:59-60). The tomb in our photo was hewn out of the rock, and you can see the large stone positioned to the left of the opening.

On Sunday, the 1st day of the week when Jesus was raised from the dead, the text says this about Peter and “the other disciple:”

So they both ran together, and the other disciple outran Peter and came to the tomb first. And he, stooping down and looking in, saw the linen cloths lying there; yet he did not go in. Then Simon Peter came, following him, and went into the tomb; and he saw the linen cloths lying there, and the handkerchief that had been around His head, not lying with the linen cloths, but folded together in a place by itself. Then the other disciple, who came to the tomb first, went in also; and he saw and believed. (John 20:4-8).

Note the record says the disciple stooped down to look in.  The tomb in our photo shows how this would of necessity be true.

Rolling Stone Tomb. Stooping to Look Inside. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Note that we are not suggesting that this is the tomb in which Jesus was buried; it does however illustrate the type of tomb that would have been used.

For New Testament Christians, each first day of the week is significant.  Christians assemble in the name of Jesus Christ to partake of His memorial feast, the Lord’s Supper.  That Supper points back to His death, His body and His blood.  But we serve a risen Savior!  We proclaim His death till He comes (1 Cor. 11:26).

(Note: this is a re-post from April 4, 2010).


Touring Israel

March 21, 2019

Between time constraints and uncooperative internet service we’ve not been able to do a lot of posting regarding our current tour of Israel and Jordan. ((We have been able to posts several photos on FB w/the WiFi on the motor-coach.) Yesterday some sites in Israel we visited included Qumran, Masada, En Gedi, the Dead Sea, and Jericho, before returning to Jerusalem.

Qumran Caves. Here the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

Looking down at Roman Ramp at Masada. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

While we were at En-Gedi we saw some young girls demonstrating the way to wash clothes in biblical times. This was in the water flowing down from the lower falls.

Washing clothes the old fashioned way at En-Gedi,Israel. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

Today was a walking tour of Jerusalem, and the City of David. More to come!

Click on photos for larger view.


Touring Israel, up the coast and on to Tiberias

March 15, 2019

My Israel/Jordan tour got off to a great start Wednesday, making stops at Caesarea, Mt. Carmel, Megiddo, Nain and Tiberias. We have some young folks on this tour. That is a good thing; good for them and good for the rest of us to have them along. For tonight I’ll briefly post a couple of photos.

Theater at Caesarea. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

This monument stands at Mt. Carmel as testimony of Elijah’s victory over the Baal prophets during the days of Ahab and Jezebel.

Elijah’s monument at Mt. Carmel. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

Click on photos for larger view. More later.


In Moab Land

March 5, 2019

In March 2018 Ferrell Jenkins & I spent several days in Jordan on a personal study tour, including several sites in what historically was biblical Moab. As was the origin of Ammon, the sad story of the Moab’s descent from Lot’s incestuous union with his daughter (oldest) is narrated in Genesis 19:30-38. The territory of Moab was located east of the Dead Sea between the wadis Arnon and Zered.

Physical features of the land. Note the Arnon and Zered, and the land of Moab. Map by Scott Richardson.

One of the sites we visited was Madaba, which today is best known for its large Byzantine-era mosaic map of the Holy Land, located in the St. George Church. A short distance away we found a spot for lunch.

Dining in Moab. Note sign in upper left: “Moab Land Hotel.” Photo by Leon Mauldin.

Madaba is mentioned in the Bible in Numbers 21:30 and Joshua 13:6 (biblical spelling is Medeba).

The Moabites “normally inhabited the area on the Transjordan plateau between Wadi Arnon on the north and Wadi Zered on the south, though they often pushed north of Wadi Arnon.” (Alexander, Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Ezekiel, 6:866).

I wanted to share a few photos of the Wadi Arnon mentioned above. The Arnon was a natural boundary. In the days of the Conquest, when the land was allotted to the tribes of Israel, the southern border of the tribe of Reuben was the Arnon.

The Arnon Valley. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The Arnon Valley as we look west.

Arnon Valley looking westward. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

Arnon Valley looking east. I think you will agree that a flat map does not do it justice!

Arnon Valley looking East. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

Click on photos for larger view.