In the Steps of Paul: Along the Appian Way

June 17, 2019

Yesterday (Sunday) between church services in Rome (AM) and Ciampino (PM), we had the opportunity to see portions of the Appian Way. This road was one of the earliest and most important Roman roads of the ancient republic, connecting Rome to Brindisi, in southeast Italy. It was constructed in the years 312–264 BC.

The Appian Way. Paul walked on this road on his way to Rome, Acts 28:14-16. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

When Paul was traveled to Rome as a prisoner as recorded in Acts 28:11-16, he was met by Roman Christians who heard he was coming. They then walked with him back to Rome. This land portion of the journey was on this road, the Appian Way. In this photo you can see the original paving stone, scored by chariot wheels. Then in the upper portion of the road you can see reconstruction pavement.

Near this area of our photo there were burial sites, such as that depicted here.

A burial site along the Appian Way. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

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Touring Israel

March 21, 2019

Between time constraints and uncooperative internet service we’ve not been able to do a lot of posting regarding our current tour of Israel and Jordan. ((We have been able to posts several photos on FB w/the WiFi on the motor-coach.) Yesterday some sites in Israel we visited included Qumran, Masada, En Gedi, the Dead Sea, and Jericho, before returning to Jerusalem.

Qumran Caves. Here the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

Looking down at Roman Ramp at Masada. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

While we were at En-Gedi we saw some young girls demonstrating the way to wash clothes in biblical times. This was in the water flowing down from the lower falls.

Washing clothes the old fashioned way at En-Gedi,Israel. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

Today was a walking tour of Jerusalem, and the City of David. More to come!

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Insect Industry (Proverbs 6:6-9)

February 22, 2019

Homer Hailey, one of my former professors of biblical studies, often said that “Solomon didn’t have much use for the sluggard.”

Go to the ant, O sluggard, Observe her ways and be wise, 7 Which, having no chief, Officer or ruler, 8 Prepares her food in the summer And gathers her provision in the harvest. 9 How long will you lie down, O sluggard? When will you arise from your sleep? 10 “A little sleep, a little slumber, A little folding of the hands to rest “– 11 Your poverty will come in like a vagabond And your need like an armed man (Proverbs 6:6-9). 

What is being addressed here is the “theme of self-inflicted economic impoverishment” Waltke, B. K. (2004) The Book of Proverbs, Chapters 1-15, p. 335). Sloth has its consequences. The sluggard neglects his opportunities, refuses to face reality; his life is characterized by disorder and chaos. To show the industry and work ethic that a man should have, Solomon uses the illustration of the ant. “The activity expected of leaders over a workforce is now detailed and applied to the ant” (Ibid.). As the KJV says, “Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways, and be wise.”

I thought of this text some years ago when Ferrell Jenkins and I had the opportunity to visit Neot Kedumim, the Biblical Landscape Reserve in Israel, located halfway between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv. I happened to notice some ants busy at work.

Ants at Neot Kedumim in Israel. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

This 625 acre park had much more to offer than ants — flora and fauna of the biblical world, as well as mill stones, oil presses, etc.


Joash Repairs the Temple, 2 Chronicles 24

September 28, 2018

When Judah’s King Ahaziah was killed (841 BC, Theile), his mother, described as “the wicked Athaliah” (2 Chron. 24:7) usurped the throne and reigned 6 years. She did the unthinkable: she killed all of Ahaziah’s sons–her own grandchildren! Of course, she was the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, and she certainly and consistently played the part.

Little known to her, the High Priest Jehoiada and his wife Jehoshabeath (Ahaziah’s sister) saved the one-year-old baby Joash, and kept him hidden for six years (2 Chron 22:10-12).

2 Chronicles 23 tells how Jehoiada led the priests, Levites, and people of Judah in crowning Joash as the rightful heir to the throne of David. At the same time, Athaliah was executed.

Joash reigned 40 years (835-796 BC). The historian says, “And Joash did what was right in the sight of the LORD all the days of Jehoiada the priest” (2 Chron. 24:1-2). The Priest Jehoiada was no doubt a great mentor to the young Joash. Faithfulness on the part of Joash was seen during the rest of Jehoiada the Priest’s life.

Great emphasis is given on the work of restoring the temple in Jerusalem (v.4), the house of God, “to repair the house of the LORD” (v.12).

Painting of Solomon’s Temple. Semitic Museum, Boston. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

The text goes on to say, “So the workmen labored, and the repair work progressed in their hands, and they restored the house of God according to its specifications and strengthened it” (v.13, NASB). The NIV translates, “The men in charge of the work were diligent, and the repairs progressed under them. They rebuilt the temple of God according to its original design and reinforced it.” All of this sounds so encouraging.

But as Martin Selman states,

Joash’s story is one of the saddest in Chronicles. It describes a king who deliberately turned his back on God after he had received personal experience of God’s mercy and had initiated a religious reformation. (2 Chronicles, Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Kindle Locations 3609-3610).

Here is what happened as soon as Jehoiada died:

But after the death of Jehoiada the officials of Judah came and bowed down to the king, and the king listened to them. 18 They abandoned the house of the LORD, the God of their fathers, and served the Asherim and the idols; so wrath came upon Judah and Jerusalem for this their guilt. 19 Yet He sent prophets to them to bring them back to the LORD; though they testified against them, they would not listen. 20 Then the Spirit of God came on Zechariah the son of Jehoiada the priest; and he stood above the people and said to them, “Thus God has said, ‘Why do you transgress the commandments of the LORD and do not prosper? Because you have forsaken the LORD, He has also forsaken you.'” 21 So they conspired against him and at the command of the king they stoned him to death in the court of the house of the LORD. 22 Thus Joash the king did not remember the kindness which his father Jehoiada had shown him, but he murdered his son. And as he died he said, “May the LORD see and avenge! (2 Chron. 24:17-22).

What becomes apparent is that whereas King Joash did so much good, and seemed to be so strong, that when his real source of strength, Jehoiada, was removed, then what appeared to be faith and strength crumbled, showing his goodness to be only outward and superficial. Lesson: each one has to make the faith his own! (2 Tim. 1:5). 


“They Let Go the Anchors”

August 1, 2018

Acts 27 is tells the exciting (and scary)  narrative of Paul’s (along with 276 passengers on the ship, v.37) voyage in the storm, shipwrecking at Malta in the Mediterranean en route to Rome. As they approached land, Luke writes, “Fearing that we might run aground somewhere on the rocks, they cast four anchors from the stern and wished for daybreak” (v.29). Then when it was day and they could see land, “And casting off the anchors, they left them in the sea while at the same time they were loosening the ropes of the rudders; and hoisting the foresail to the wind, they were heading for the beach” (v.40). There was no loss of life, and the group wintered at what turned out to be Malta (28:1ff.).

At En Gev on the Sea of Galilee I photographed some anchors which can serve as good illustrations of the Acts 27 text.

Anchors displayed at Ein Gev, Israel. Photo ©Leon Mauldin.

House of the Anchors. Photo ©Leon Mauldin.

Such artifacts are useful in helping to visualize the text and may be used in PPT or printed as handouts.

Anchor at Ein Gev, Israel. Photo ©Leon Mauldin.

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Cities of the Decapolis

July 18, 2018

I’m currently presenting a visualized survey of the Bible, with tonight’s lesson dealing with the Life of Christ. Following Jesus’ Galilean Ministry, He pursued a plan to invest more time alone with the Apostles, preparing them for the great work they were to do. This period is known as the Retirement Ministry, “retiring” from the crowds to be with the apostles. One region Jesus traveled during this time was the Decapolis. “Again He went out from the region of Tyre, and came through Sidon to the Sea of Galilee, within the region of Decapolis” (Mark 7:31). This largely Gentile area was comprised of ten cities (hence the name) which were given autonomy by Rome.

One of the cities of the Decapolis was Jerash (Gerasa).

Hadrian Gate at entrance to Jerash, one of the cities of the Decapolis. Photo ©Leon Mauldin.

Here is a view down the Cardo of Jerash.

Cardo at Jerash. Photo ©Leon Mauldin.

Another city of the Decapolis was Hippos. From here you can see the Sea of Galilee.

Hippos of the Decapolis. Photo ©Leon Mauldin.

We’ve previously written here on Hippos.

Back to our text of Mark 7:31. Here was the site of one of Jesus’ many miracles, which gave proof of His deity:

Again He went out from the region of Tyre, and came through Sidon to the Sea of Galilee, within the region of Decapolis. 32 They brought to Him one who was deaf and spoke with difficulty, and they implored Him to lay His hand on him. 33 Jesus took him aside from the crowd, by himself, and put His fingers into his ears, and after spitting, He touched his tongue with the saliva; 34 and looking up to heaven with a deep sigh, He said to him, “Ephphatha!” that is, “Be opened!” 35 And his ears were opened, and the impediment of his tongue was removed, and he began speaking plainly. 36 And He gave them orders not to tell anyone; but the more He ordered them, the more widely they continued to proclaim it. 37 They were utterly astonished, saying, “He has done all things well; He makes even the deaf to hear and the mute to speak.” (Mark 7:31-37).

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“Who Sent out the Wild Donkey Free?”

April 7, 2018

In the concluding chapters of the book of Job, God asks a series of rhetorical questions to help Job see the incomprehensible greatness of God. Many of these questions have to do with God’s creative power.

5 “Who sent out the wild donkey free? And who loosed the bonds of the swift donkey, 6 To whom I gave the wilderness for a home And the salt land for his dwelling place? 7 “He scorns the tumult of the city, The shoutings of the driver he does not hear. 8 “He explores the mountains for his pasture And searches after every green thing. (Job 39:5-8, NASB).

Note the translation of the NKJV: “Who set the wild donkey free? Who loosed the bonds of the onager” (Job 39:5).

The onager, the wild donkey referenced in Job 39:5. Photo ©Leon Mauldin.

I had the opportunity this past week in Israel to visit the Yotvata Hai-Bar Nature Reserve, situated in the Southern Arabah, and photograph animals that are native to the Bible lands. This photo helps us visualize the animal (the onager) God was mentioning to Job in our above text.

The Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible has the following info in its entry on “animals”:

The onager or Syrian wild ass (Equus hemionus hemihippus) is an intermediate between the true horse and the true ass. Its ears are longer than those of a horse but shorter than those of an ass. The front hooves are narrow; there are chestnuts (callouslike spots on the inside of the knees) on the front legs only, and the tail is short-haired for a long distance from its root so that it appears to be tufted.

The Sumerians (ancient Mesopotamians) were able to domesticate the onager, which was eventually replaced by the horse. It was used to draw chariots in Ur; a number of onagers were buried with their vehicles in a royal grave that dates from about 2500 BC. Later the wild onager was a favorite hunter’s prize for Babylonian and Assyrian kings.

The onager was very common in the steppe lands near Israel where it was described as a freedom-loving desert animal (Jb 24:5; 39:5–8; Ps 104:11; Is 32:14; Jer 2:24; Hos 8:9). Ishmael was described as “a wild ass of a man” (Gn 16:12), one who could not adjust to domestic life. Nebuchadnezzar lived among the wild asses when he was mentally ill (Dn 5:21). Drought seems to have been responsible for the population decline of the onager in biblical times (Jer 14:6). The modern onager (Equus hemionus onager) is slightly larger than the Syrian wild ass which is extinct. (Vol. 1, p. 94).

As Job learned more of the greatness of the awesome God he faithfully served, his faith and trust grew in the most difficult of circumstances.

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