Tel Lachish, where King Amaziah of Judah Was Killed

April 22, 2017

“From the time Amaziah turned from following the LORD, conspirators plotted against him in Jerusalem, so he fled to Lachish. But they sent assassins after him and they killed him there” (2 Chronicles 25:27, NET).

Tel Lachish at center. View is from the southwest. Photo ©Leon Mauldin.

Our photo gives the geographical setting for the biblical text, which tells of the assassination of one of Judah’s kings during the “Divided Kingdom” period. Amaziah reigned 796-767 BC. He is described by one author as “a mediocre king who suffered the consequences of his compromises” (Shepherds Notes, The Kings of Judah, p.79).

Later the city of Lachish would be one of 46 fortified cities captured by the Assyrian king Sennacherib, in 701 BC. His siege-mound formed for that invasion can still be seen at the southwest corner of tel Lachish.

Click photo for larger view.

We previously wrote about Lachish here and here.

Elijah Fled to Beersheba

May 1, 2016

In the 1 Kings narrative of the prophet Elijah and his dealings with wicked Ahab & Jezebel, YHWH proved dramatically on Mt. Carmel that He was the true God, answering Elijah’s prayer by sending fire on the mountain to devour the sacrifice. The Baal prophets who were present were destroyed. The 3 1/2 year drought ended, showing God, not Baal, controlled the rain (1 Kings 18).

While one might expect that this would be a real turning point for the spiritual condition of Israel, such was not the case. Jezebel’s response: “Then Jezebel sent a messenger to Elijah, saying, “So may the gods do to me and even more, if I do not make your life as the life of one of them by tomorrow about this time” (19:2).

Elijah then had a very real struggle with fear and depression. His response: “And he was afraid and arose and ran for his life and came to Beersheba, which belongs to Judah, and left his servant there. But he himself went a day’s journey into the wilderness, and came and sat down under a juniper tree; and he requested for himself that he might die, and said, ‘It is enough; now, O LORD, take my life, for I am not better than my fathers'” (19:3-4).

Beersheba is located in the Negeb, the south of Israel.



Last month I had opportunity to take some aerial photos of Beersheba.

Aerial photo of Beersheba. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

Aerial photo of Beersheba. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

We have previously posted on Beersheba here here here and here.

Aphek, Setting of 1 Samuel 4

December 31, 2014

1 Sam. 4:1 mentions a Philistine encampment at Aphek, when the Philistines drew up in battle array to meet Israel. Apparently the site of the battle itself was between Ebenezer and Aphek. Israel was defeated soundly in two back-to-back battles there. Our photo shows Aphek at bottom and left; view is from the south. As you look to the north you are seeing the Sharon plain. The modern highway at this point is following the route of the ancient Via Maris.

Aphek at lower left. View from south. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

Aphek at lower left. View from south. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

I earlier posted on Aphek here. Aphek became Antipatris by NT times (Acts 23:31). See also Ferrell Jenkins’ post here.

In Todd Bolen’s Pictorial Library of Bible Lands (#2, Samaria and the Center), Todd summarizes the History of the excavations at Aphek in his PowerPoint notes on “Sharon Plain” (slide 15): (BTW, I highly recommend this set!)

Aphek: History of the Excavation

1.In 1923, Albright’s survey confirmed identification of the site as Aphek.

2.From 1935 to 1936, J. Ory, an employee of the British Department of Antiquities, dug two test pits in two areas on the north side of the site, in connection with the British pumping station.

3.The Palestine Department of Antiquities excavated in 1946.

4.In 1961, A. Eitan excavated for the Israel Department of Antiquities.

5.From 1972 to 1985, a major excavation was carried out by Moshe Kochavi of Tel Aviv University.

Aphek has a fascinating history. The Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land (3rd ed.) has this info on Aphek/Antipatris:

An important station on the ancient Via Maris, mentioned in the list of Pharaoh Tuthmosis III. The King of Aphek was one of the 31 rulers of Canaan vanquished by Joshua (Josh. 12:18). The Philistines gathered their armies there to go into battle against Israel (1 Sam. 4:1; 29:1). Scholars believe that in both cases Aphek in the Sharon is referred to. In a later period the place is mentioned in one of the inscriptions of Esarhaddon, and also in a letter written in Aramaic that was sent to Pharaoh before the Babylonian conquest of Palestine.

Early in the Hellenistic period a fort on the border between the districts of Samaria and the Sharon was built at this place, then known as Pegai. John Hyrcanus I conquered it in about 132 BC. At that period it was also known as Arethusa, both names implying that it was built near rich sources of water, as indeed it was. After the conquest by Pompey in 63 BC the town of Arethusa was rebuilt. When Herod the Great ascended to the throne he built a new city at Arethusa, renaming it Antipatris, after his father Antipater. This new city became the center of a district with many prosperous villages. In the later Roman period it was named Antipatris Antoniniana, probably after Elagabalus. The Mishna mentions it under the name of Mei Piga, the Waters of Piga.

Aphek-Antipatris is identified with Tell Ras el-Ain, which is rich in springs and vegetation. The sizeable mound is now occupied by a large Turkish citadel, built on the remains of a Crusader castle. Trial digs unearthed remains from the Bronze Age to the Roman period, including a large Roman mausoleum.

Extensive excavations were carried out on the site in the years 1974–84 by M. Kochavi on behalf of Tel Aviv University and American archaeological institutions. The earliest remains on the site are those of a city wall of the Early Bronze Age found in the northern part of the mound. On the acropolis on the western part of the mound were discovered a series of palaces. The earliest of these palaces belongs to the Middle Bronze Age IIA. Its walls are 4 feet thick, and are still standing to a height of 5 feet. The palace consists of a central hall with a roof supported by two columns. Numerous rooms are grouped around this spacious hall. It was destroyed by a fierce fire in the middle of the 16th century BC. Two city walls also belong to this period. Above this palace another, larger palace was built in the Late Bronze Age. This spacious building contained numerous rooms; a staircase tower gave access to the rooms on the upper story, where the princes of Aphek lived. North of the palace was a spacious court, and another service building east of it. Wine presses discovered nearby and numerous grape pips uncovered in the ruins of the palace attest to the existence of a wine industry. In the ruins of the palace were discovered Egyptian, Hittite and Accadian documents, among them a cuneiform bilingual, Sumerian-Accadian dictionary, and a fragment of a trilingual Sumerian-Accadian-Canaanite dictionary. This is the only known multilingual dictionary which includes the Canaanite language. Most of these documents date from the 14th–13th centuries BC. The acropolis was destroyed at the end of the 13th century BC. Scanty occupation remains are found from the end of the Late Bronze Age. A small faience plaque discovered in the Early Iron Age level bears the names of Pharaoh Rameses II written in ink and a dedication to the goddess Isis, indicating the possible existence of a temple dedicated to this goddess. In the 12th century BC Aphek was occupied by the Philistines. The new city consisted of various quarters each built according to a different plan and different standard of construction, and each apparently inhabited by a different class of citizens. The houses were almost square and consisted of a large front hall with smaller rooms in the rear. The poorer houses were oblong structures, set closely together, and built with thin walls. In this quarter were discovered fishing-net weights, copper fishing hooks and tortoise shells. Numerous storage bins from the 10th century BC, the Israelite period, testify to the conquest of the site by David. Two levels containing dwellings were found from the time of the United Kingdom. Above the ruins of the Middle Bronze Age II palace were discovered two Israelite houses of the four-room type, from the 10th and 8th centuries BC.

In the higher levels of the mound Ptolemaic, Seleucid, Hasmonean and Herodian levels were encountered. In the Herodian period the city was laid out along a new plan. At the junction of the main streets was the forum; it was rebuilt in the Late Roman period. One of the streets leading to the forum was lined with shops. In the time of Herod Agrippa I the street was repaved and workshops were built along it. The city declined after the fall of the Second Temple and was not rebuilt before the 2nd century AD. From the Roman period large sections of the cardo, the main street, were discovered. A theater stood at the southern end of the street. From this period a market and a quarter for the wealthier citizens were also found. In AD 363 the entire city was destroyed in an earthquake.

Click image for larger view. Happy New Year!

2014 in review

December 30, 2014

The stats helper monkeys prepared a 2014 annual report for this blog.

Here’s an excerpt:

The concert hall at the Sydney Opera House holds 2,700 people. This blog was viewed about 49,000 times in 2014. If it were a concert at Sydney Opera House, it would take about 18 sold-out performances for that many people to see it.

Click here to see the complete report.

Valley of Sorek, Delilah’s Home

December 6, 2014

Judges 16:4 tells us about Samson’s attraction to the Philistine Delilah, the woman who would bring about his downfall: “After this it came about that he loved a woman in the valley of Sorek, whose name was Delilah.”

You can see the valley of Sorek at distant center  in our aerial photo here:

Valley of Sorek. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

Valley of Sorek. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary has this brief info:

Sorek, Valley of [sôrˊĕk] (Heb. naḥal śōrēq “valley of a choice grape vine”). A valley to be identified with Wâdī eṣ-Ṣarâr, which runs in a northwesterly direction from the vicinity of Beth-shemesh (ca. 20 km. [13 mi.] west-southwest of Jerusalem) to the Mediterranean, meeting the sea about halfway between Ashdod and Tel Aviv. Delilah’s home was in the valley of Sorek, then under Philistine control (Judg. 16:4). (p. 964)

Jerusalem, the Kidron, and Mt. of Olives

February 3, 2012

Yesterday’s post featured a photo of a hen with her chicks, imagery used by Jesus Himself in His lamentation over Jerusalem, as He wanted to gather the people unto Himself but they refused. Immediately he left the temple courts, crossed the Kidron with His disciples, and went to the Mount of Olives where He gave what has become known as the “Olivet Discourse” (Matthew 24).

Our photo provides an overview of the setting for these events. You can easily recognize the temple mount. Below that is the Kidron Valley. Next, at bottom of photo is the Mt. of Olives.

Temple Mount in Jerusalem, Kidron, and Mt. of Olives. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

Click on image for larger view.

En Route to Israel

March 8, 2011

What a wonderful opportunity to visit Israel again with friends who want to be better Bible students. My group is presently waiting at Newark, with a slightly delayed departure time.

The Ben Gurion airport is located on the site of OT Lod, NT Lydda. Peter was a Lydda when brethren came from Joppa with the news that Dorcas had died, asking him to hurry there. Upon arriving, he raised her from the dead (Acts 9:32-41).

Check our blog to follow our travels; we will post as time permits. For now here is an aerial of Joppa, taken Dec. ’09.

Aerial of Joppa. Photo by Leon Mauldin.

Joppa is immediately south of Tel Aviv.

Click on image for higher resolution.



The Herodium

December 7, 2010

The Herodium was a fortress built by Herod the Great.  It is located about eight miles south of Jerusalem and about 3 miles southeast of Bethlehem.

Here Herod was buried, but his tomb was not discovered until May 2007, by Ehud Netzer, who recently died at the site as a result of a fall.


Aerial of Herodium. Photo by Leon Mauldin


The small blue rectangle is the site of recent excavations.  Just below that you can see the theater.

Click image for higher resolution.


November 30, 2010

The city of Lachish (Tell ed-Duweir in Arabic) was located about 30 miles southwest of Jerusalem, nestled in the foothills, the Shephelah, of Judah.  The site covers about 18 acres. It was previously a principle Canaanite city and then after the conquest under Joshua, it was one of the most important Israelite cities.

Our photo gives an aerial view of biblical Lachish.

Aerial of Lachish, one of Judah's most important cities. Photo ©Leon Mauldin.

On the far right the siege mound built by the Assyrians under Sennacherib in 701 B.C. can still be seen. You can also see the ancient wall of the city and the gate complex.


1. Rehoboam, Solomon’s son, rebuilt Lachish as a city for defense, a fortified city (2 Chron. 11:5-11).

2. Later, King Amaziah of Judah, following his apostasy from God (he began worshiping the gods of Edom), was killed while hiding in Lachish (2 Kgs. 14:19; 2 Chron. 25:27).

3. Sennacherib, king of Assyria, captured Lachish (2 Kgs.18:13-17; 2 Chron. 32:9).  He considered its capture to be of such significance that he depicted it in elaborate relief on the wall of his palace at Nineveh, as illustrated in our photo here below.  Note the Assyrian archers; others are scaling the wall by means of a ladder.

Lachish Relief. Metro Museum NY. Photo ©Leon Mauldin.

Additionally, Lachish is known for the “Lachish Letters,” twenty-one pottery sherds on which were written letters in clear Hebrew information regarding the attack on Lachish and Jerusalem by Babylon in 586 B.C. One of those letters says that the signal fires from Azekah could no longer be seen. Just prior to that, Jeremiah had observed that only Lachish and Azekah were left as fortified cities in Judah (Jer. 34:7).

Click on images for higher resolution.


November 18, 2010

I’m currently attending the ETS and SBL meetings in Atlanta, and enjoying sharing a room with bro. Ferrell Jenkins.

A couple of the presentationstoday have been on biblical Gezer.  This city was given as a dowry to Solomon by Pharaoh when he married Pharaoh’s daughter.  Gezer became a fortress city, guarding access to the south. Excavation is ongoing.

Today’s post features an aerial photo of Gezer, taken last year (Dec. 2009).

Aerial photo of Gezer. Photo ©Leon Mauldin.

In the center of the photo you can see Gezer’s “standing stones.”  Upper right show an important area of excavation, including the six-chambered gate.


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