Excavations at the temple of Horus at Hierakonpolis (ancient Nekhen) on the west bank of the Nile (north of Aswan, and south of Edfu), produced some remarkable finds, including a hollow-cast copper statue of Pepi I.
Pepi I had a lengthy reign of about 50 years (c. 2283-2287 BC). His reign is in Dynasty 6, Old Kingdom. Numerous inscriptions record his influence and wealth.
“It is from Pepi’s funerary monument that the modern name of Memphis derives. His pyramid was called Mn-nfr, ‘[Pepi is] established and good'” (Clayton, Chronicles of the Pharaohs, p. 66).
To keep things interesting, Pepi married two daughters of a provincial prince of Abydos who both had the same name, Ankhnesmerire.
Pepi’s pyramid is at South Saqqara, and is badly smashed.
Pharaoh Menkaura/Mycerinus was the builder of the 3rd pyramid at Giza, Egypt. The triad of Menkaura represents the Pharaoh at center, wearing the white crown of Upper Egypt. To his right is the goddess Hathor. To his left is Waset representing the 4th Nome of Upper Egypt). This rendering is from a single block of stone. More statues survive of Menkaure than those of his 4th Dynasty predecessors.
Pictured here is the Pyramid of Menkaura:
At left can be seen a portion of the pyramid of Cheops. To the far right are three subsidiary pyramids. Menkaure’s chief queen, Khamerernebty II, was entombed in the larger of the three.
And to close this post, a photo of my wife & me:
In the background can be seen from left to right, the pyramid of Cheops, Chephren and Menkaure.
Egypt’s 4th Dynasty was founded by Snefru c. 2613 BC. His son Cheops (Khufu) succeeded him, and is the builder of the largest of the great pyramids, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
Cheops’s reign is dated c. 2589-2566 BC. This tiny statue depicts the king wearing the crown of Lower Egypt. This artifact was discovered by Flinders Petrie in the Osiris temple at Abydos in 1903. “In a curious inverse ratio we find that the smallest statue represents the builder of the greatest pyramid, while some of the finest multiple statues extant from the Old Kingdom represent the builder of the smallest of the Giza pyramids, Menkaure (fifth ruler of the 4th Dynasty)” (Chronicles, Clayton, p. 49.
Cheops’s Great Pyramid is located on the Giza plateau. Originally reaching 481 feet, it was the tallest building in the world until the 19th century AD, an architectural record that stood for 4 1/2 thousand years. There are said to be 2,300,000 building blocks averaging about 2 1/2 tons.
Here is my group photo (Oct. 19, 2022) at the pyramids of Giza.
At far left you can see the Great Pyramid of Cheops. At left center you see the pyramid of Chephren (Khafra/Khafre), which appears to be taller, but is in fact on higher ground. At far right is the pyramid of Mycerinus.
In this post we will give consideration to the first of the pyramid Builders, in the context of Egypt’s Old Kingdom (2686-2181 BC). For your convenience we share the following chart (keep in mind that dates are approximate and may vary):
“Djoser’s pyramid and its surrounding mortuary complex is recognized as the first stone building in the world” (Chronicles of the Pharaoh’s, by Peter Clayton, p. 33), built by his vizier, Imhotep. Though begun “as a simple tomb, the structure was enlarged in height and breadth on five occasions, eventually rising to its present 197 feet. Unlike Egypt’s other pyramids, the Step Pyramid was built with comparatively small limestone blocks” (BAR Nov/Dec 1990, Richard Nowitz).
The pyramid, known as the Step Pyramid, began as a mastaba (an ancient Egyptian tomb rectangular in shape with sloping sides and a flat roof) “but was subsequently subject to several major enlargements, adding one mastaba upon another, until it consisted of six unequal steps rising t to 204 ft 962 m). Its base area is 358 X 411 ft (109 X 125 m)” (Clayton, p. 34).
A statue of King Djoser is displayed at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. It is thought to be the oldest life-size statue from Egypt.
The statue was found in a small chapel on the north face of the pyramid.
We should note that many have the mistaken notion that the Israelites were used as slave labor to build the pyramids. The pyramids were built some centuries before Israel came into being. They were built prior to the time of Abraham!