2 Chronicles tells the story of Judah’s King Jehoram, who did “evil in the sight of the LORD” (unlike his father, good King Jehoshaphat). Things began to fall apart politically, as Edom to Judah’s south, and Libnah, to the west revolted:
In his days Edom revolted against the rule of Judah and set up a king over themselves. Then Jehoram crossed over with his commanders and all his chariots with him. And he arose by night and struck down the Edomites who were surrounding him and the commanders of the chariots. So Edom revolted against Judah to this day. Then Libnah revolted at the same time against his rule, because he had forsaken the LORD God of his fathers (21:8-10).
Note the reason for the revolt: “because he [Jehoram] had forsaken the LORD God of his fathers.”
Excavations have been conducted for many years at Tel Burna, believed by many to be the site of Libnah.
The Tel Burna Excavation Project has a website here.
Another nearby site which has also been proposed is that of Tel Zayit, the excavated under the direction of Ron Tappy of Pittsburgh Theological Seminary.
Both of these sites, located in the Judean Shephelah, are Iron Age Israelite cities and are good candidates for biblical Libnah; further excavation and research hopefully will be more definitive. See map here below which indicates the proposed location of Libnah (Tel Burna). Libnah was located on the western edge of Judah, just southeast of the Philistine city of Gath (Tel es-Safi), placing it near the Judean/Philistine border.
The well-known city of Petra (of the Nabateans) was within the territory of Old Testament Edom.
Among the interesting things said about King Jehoram:
- Judah increasingly follows the apostate lead of Israel, with its Baal worship introduced by Jezebel (2 Kings 8:18; cf. 1 Kings 16:31).
- Jehoram of Judah is the brother-in-law of King Jehoram (or Joram) of Israel. The king of Israel was Ahab’s son; Jehoram of Judah is Ahab’s son-in-law, having married Athaliah the daughter of Ahab.
- Once Jehoram was established as king, he killed all his brothers with the sword (2 Chron. 21:4). He had six brothers.
- Though Judah’s leaders might be unfaithful, YAHWEH would be faithful to the covenant that He had made with David (2 Chron. 21:7). During this time, the Messianic lineage/hope would be hanging by the thread of one life for three successive generations, but God intervened to make sure there was a “lamp” burning.
- In contrast to his good father Jehoshaphat, Jehoram constructed “high places” for the worship of pagan gods in the mountains of Judah by which he “led Judah astray” (2 Chron. 21:10).
- Jehoram received a letter from the prophet Elijah (2 Chron. 21:12-15); Elijah was alive for at least part of Jehoram’s reign (cf. 2 Kings 1:17). The letter took the form of a prophetic judgment, inditing him for the sins of idolatry and fratricide. Great calamity as well as a painful death by an incurable intestinal disease was to come.
- Philistine and Arabian raiders invaded Judah and took all of Jehoram’s sons, except Ahaziah (2 Chron. 21:17). We learn subsequently that all of these sons were killed (2 Chron. 22:1). Also they took away Jehoram’s wives, except for Athaliah.
- In 2 Chronicles 21 Jehoram’s story concludes with three negatives: At his death the people did not make the customary funeral fire to honor him (v.19); when he died no one regretted his passing (v.20); he was not buried in the tombs of the kings (v.20). How sad!
Click images for larger view.
Great post Leon! I appreciate the precise way you traced the
chronology of what happened with these kings of Judah